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 [Function Specific for Functions A and B] This module provides an introduction to the theory relating to minor procedures. It provides information about appropriate methods of handling and restraint and describes appropriate techniques for injection, dosing and sampling relevant to the species. It should provide information sufficient for individuals to understand what will be required of them before they go on to trained in the practical aspects of these skills whilst under supervision.

Trainees should be able to:

7.1. Describe appropriate methods and principles to be followed when handling animals (including methods of manual restraint and use of restricted environments).

7.2. Describe the biological impact of procedures and restraint on physiology.

7.3. Describe refinement opportunities for procedures and restraint e.g. through training (using positive re-enforcement), habituation and socialisation of animals.

7.4. Describe techniques/procedures including, for example, injection, sampling and dosing techniques (routes/volumes/frequency), dietary modification, gavage, tissue biopsy, behavioural tests, use of metabolic cages.

7.5. Describe how to perform minor techniques and relate appropriate sample volumes and sampling frequencies for the relevant species.

7.6. Describe the need for rigour and consistency in conducting scientific procedures and the correct recording and handling of samples.

7.7. Describe appropriate methods for the assessment of the welfare of animals with respect to the severity of procedures and know what appropriate action to take.

7.8. Recognize that refinement is an on-going process and know where to find relevant, up-todate, information.

7.9. Describe the biological consequences of transport, acclimatization, husbandry conditions and experimental procedures on the species concerned and describe how these can be minimised.