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Multi-arm trials that use a parallel-group design and have three or more groups offer the opportunity to address more than one research question. They can speed up the evaluation of new interventions and facilitate head-to-head comparisons with competing treatment options. These trials appeal to clinicians and patients because they also increase the likelihood of receiving an experimental intervention rather than standard care.

Multi-arm parallel-group randomised clinical trials typically include multiple interventions, combinations of interventions, different doses of an intervention, a placebo and no intervention or treatment as usual. These elements can be combined in various ways resulting in numerous possible trial structures.

Read more (Nuffield Department of Population Health website)

Read more about clinical trials at Oxford

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